The other day I was looking for epigraphical sources when I came across an article from Islamic Awareness, a website for Muslim apologetics. Now, I quite like Islamic Awareness: their analysis is often awry, but they tend to cite academic… Continue Reading
‘Umar bin al-Khattāb, or ‘Umar I, was the second caliph after Muhammad. The vast majority of sources on his life are in Arabic and date to the ninth century or later. Before that point, we have little more than scraps.